Febrile body temperature is an increase in thermometer readings from 38 to 39 degrees, which is manifested by a feeling of heat, headache, tachycardia and rapid breathing. It develops with some viral and all bacterial infections, inflammatory processes in the abdominal cavity, brain damage. To verify the cause of fever, a blood culture study, serological reactions, ultrasound, and radiography are used. To reduce fever, physical methods of cooling are prescribed in combination with antipyretic drugs.
In this viral process, the temperature in most cases rises sharply to 39°C within a few hours. Fever is preceded by a short prodromal period, when there is a headache and body aches, general malaise. With an increase in the thermometer, a flu patient feels a strong chill, which is replaced by fever, skin flushing. The eyes acquire a characteristic luster, the vessels of the conjunctiva are filled with blood. The duration of hyperthermia in uncomplicated forms of influenza is up to 5 days, then a critical drop in temperature occurs (sometimes below 35 degrees).
The disease develops gradually, during the week there is a prodromal period with weakness, aching muscles, sore throat. The temperature in infectious mononucleosis rises to febrile, with reduced immunity, its values \u200b\u200bcan reach 40-41 ° C. At the same time, severe pain in the throat and difficulty in swallowing appear, lymph nodes increase. The duration of the febrile period is 1-2 weeks. Sometimes, after the disappearance of clinical manifestations, the temperature remains subfebrile, which is due to post-viral asthenic syndrome.
Microorganisms, when released into the bloodstream, stimulate the massive production of endogenous cytokines that affect the autonomic centers of the hypothalamus. Febrile fever in bacterial diseases is often of a constant type, but the temperature curve can become undulating - the alternation of periods of elevated and normal temperature is associated with a cyclic release of bacteria into the systemic circulation. The duration of symptoms is from several days to several weeks, febrile temperature is combined with lack of appetite, exhaustion of the body. The main causes of hyperthermia:
Inflammatory processes in the abdominal organs provoke the synthesis of pyrogens, which are quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and act on the thermoregulation center. The body temperature of a patient with an acute abdomen is usually febrile, with chills and muscle tremors. Despite the high thermometer readings, the skin remains pale and cold to the touch, which is associated with pathological vasospasm. In addition to fever, there are local signs - severe abdominal pain, dyspepsia. With such symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor to diagnose and eliminate the cause.
With damage to the brain tissue, febrile temperature is associated not only with the action of endogenous pyrogens, but also with a direct effect on the centers of the hypothalamus. Hyperthermia sometimes reaches 41 degrees, the general condition of the patient is severe - unbearable headaches, meningeal symptoms are observed. Then there are violations of consciousness: delirium, hallucinations, pathological drowsiness. Similar signs are characteristic of purulent meningitis, encephalitis. Fever also occurs in severe traumatic brain injury.
Sometimes, at the beginning of antibiotic therapy for sepsis and massive bacteremia, the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction is noted, due to such reasons as the decay of microbial cells, intoxication of the body with foreign antigens, and an uncontrolled immune response. Symptoms occur during treatment with bactericidal drugs - penicillin, vancomycin, sulfonamides. In the elderly, febrile body temperature appears after 1-2 weeks of using psychotropic drugs, which is potentiated by neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Fever is also caused by:
If you have a fever, you should visit a general practitioner who collects an anamnesis of the disease and an initial examination of the patient. To identify the cause that provoked febrile temperature, various bacteriological studies are carried out. To study the state of internal organs and identify local pathological processes, instrumental visualization is necessary. In terms of diagnostics, the most important are:
You can bring down the fever to 38.5 ° C using physical cooling methods - wiping the body with water at a low temperature, maintaining the humidity in the room within 50-60% and the temperature regime up to 2 degrees, using a fan. A person needs to be regularly given a warm drink to prevent dehydration. At higher thermometer numbers, it is permissible to use antipyretic drugs (paracetamol, ibuprofen). With a febrile body temperature and a sharp deterioration in the general condition, the patient needs qualified medical care.
In adults, antipyretic drugs are prescribed only if the febrile body temperature rises more than 38.5 degrees. Medicines are given to children with a fever above 38 ° C in order to prevent the development of such a formidable complication as febrile convulsions. Medicines from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used. In childhood, the use of acetylsalicylic acid is prohibited, since it can cause Reye's syndrome. In addition to symptomatic agents, drugs are used that affect the causes of fever: