Lambdacism is a phonetic disorder, expressed in the abnormal pronunciation of [Л] and [Л']. It is manifested by distortion (interdental, nasal, bilabial, labio-dental) or the absence of these speech sounds. It occurs in the structure of dyslalia, dysarthria syndrome, rhinolalia. Defective sound pronunciation is detected during a speech examination. Speech therapy correction of lambdacism is carried out using articulatory gymnastics, logo massage, differentiated sound production techniques, special exercises for automating the evoked sound.
The soft sonor [L'] appears in the child's speech in the second or third year of life, the hard [L] - at the age of 5-6, which is associated with more complex articulation, requiring strong muscles of the tip of the tongue and its upper lift. In the absence or distorted pronunciation of the phoneme, lambdacism is diagnosed, and when it is replaced by other speech sounds, paralambdacism is diagnosed. Along with sigmatisms and rotacisms, pronunciation defects [Л-Л'] are among the most frequent sound distortions among preschool children with speech disorders (from 10% with dyslalia to 46.7% with erased dysarthria).
Disadvantages of pronunciation [L-L '] are typical for children suffering from functional and mechanical dyslalia, dysarthria disorders, open rhinolalia. Organic defects of peripheral speech organs, violation of muscle innervation, functional insufficiency of sound pronunciation can lead to lambdacism:
The sound [L] is a consonant, stop-passing, oral, anterior lingual. With its articulation, the lips take on the position of a half-smile, the teeth open. The tongue is saddle-shaped, with a narrow tip resting against the base of the upper incisors. The edges of the tongue form a gap with lateral teeth through which air escapes. The vocal folds are brought together and vibrate to form the voice. This is the only phoneme in Russian that is pronounced in a narrow language.
When pronouncing [L'], the tip of the tongue is raised to the alveoli and is more tense. The anterior-middle sections of the back of the tongue are close to the palate, giving softening (palatalization).
The position of the tongue when pronouncing the sound [L]
Hard [L] is articulatory the most complex, therefore it is violated much more often than its soft pair. In speech therapy, the following varieties of lambdacism are described:
In addition to the listed types of lambdacism, the sonor [L] may be completely absent in speech. There is also a lower pronunciation variant in which the tip of the tongue does not rise up. In the latter case, the sound is not distorted, so such a violation may not be corrected. Paralambdacisms include replacements of [L] with [Y], [U], [B], [J], [P].
The task of determining the causes and type of lambdacism is implemented in the course of speech therapy diagnostics. If it is necessary to clarify the medical aspects of the pathology, consultations of a pediatric dentist, maxillofacial surgeon, neurologist, otolaryngologist are appointed. To study the speech status is carried out:
The participation of medical specialists may be required for lambdacism due to dental problems, neurological pathologies (ICP), and hearing loss. So, with a shortened frenulum, in some cases, preliminary frenuloplasty is necessary, with a cleft palate - uranoplasty. Hearing loss requires an adequate fitting of a hearing aid. In case of violation of muscle innervation, speech therapy work is preceded by a complex of medical, physiotherapeutic treatment, massage.
Before proceeding with the formulation of normative sound pronunciation, preparatory work is carried out to form the correct articulatory posture, the development of phonemic hearing. At the first stage of correction of lambdacism, the following speech therapy techniques are used:
Sound production starts after the completion of the preparatory stage. In various forms of lambdacism, differentiated methods and techniques are used: by imitation, based on basic sounds, with the help of staging probes.
As soon as the sound [L] is received, they move on to fixing it in syllables (direct, reverse, with a combination of consonants), words, tongue twisters, stories. The differentiation step is only necessary in cases of paralambdaicism. The duration of corrective speech therapy classes depends on the cause and mechanism of lambdacism, the presence of other phonetic defects that need to be corrected.